Surely at some point in your life you have tried at least one of the chamomile benefits, whether in a tea, essential oil, infusion, bath sitz, lotion, etc. If you have not yet witnessed its healing properties, we invite you to continue reading so that you know the multiple benefits of this wonder of nature.
Chamomile is native of the old world, and is one of the most ancient, widely used and well documented medicinal herbs known to mankind. Throughout history it has been recommended for a variety of healing applications, and even today, its therapeutic properties continue to be studied.
It is a member of Asteraceae or Compositae family, and represented by two common varieties: viz. German Chamomile (Matriacaria chamomilla) and Roman Chamomile (Chamaemelum nobile).
The dried flowers of chamomile contain many terpenoids and flavonoids contributing to its medicinal properties. Chamomile preparations are commonly used for many human ailments such as hay fever, inflammation, muscle spasms, menstrual disorders, insomnia, ulcers, wounds, gastrointestinal disorders, rheumatic pain, and hemorrhoids.
Essential oils of chamomile are used extensively in cosmetics and aromatherapy. Many different preparations of chamomile have been developed, the most popular of which is in the form of herbal tea, consumed more than one million cups per day.
In this post we describe the use of chamomile in traditional medicine with regard to evaluating its curative and preventive properties, highlight recent findings for its development as a therapeutic agent promoting human health.
Bioactive Constituents of Chamomile
Different classes of bioactive constituents are present in chamomile, which have been isolated and used as medicinal preparations and cosmetics. The plant contains 0.24%– 1.9% volatile oil, composed of a variety of separate oils.
When exposed to steam distillation, the oil ranges in color from brilliant blue to deep green when fresh, but turns to dark yellow after storage. Despite fading, the oil does not lose its potency.
Approximately 120 secondary metabolites have been identified in chamomile, including 28 terpenoids and 36 flavonoids. The principal components of the essential oil extracted from the German chamomile flowers are the terpenoids α-bisabolol and its oxide azulenes including chamazulene and acetylene derivatives.
Chamazulene and bisabolol are very unstable and are best preserved in an alcoholic tincture. The essential oil of Roman chamomile contains less chamazulene and is mainly constituted from esters of angelic acid and tiglic acid. It also contains farnesene and α-pinene.
Roman chamomile contains up to 0.6% of sesquiterpene lactones of the germacranolide type, mainly nobilin and 3-epinobilin.
Both α-bisabolol, bisabolol oxides A and B and chamazulene or azulenesse, farnesene and spiro-ether quiterpene lactones, glycosides, hydroxycoumarins, flavanoids (apigenin, luteolin, patuletin, and quercetin), coumarins (herniarin and umbelliferone), terpenoids, and mucilage are considered to be the major bio-active ingredients.
Other major constituents of the flowers include several phenolic compounds, primarily the flavonoids apigenin, quercetin, patuletin as glucosides and various acetylated derivatives. Among flavonoids, apigenin is the most promising compound. It is present in very small quantities as free apigenin, but predominantly exists in the form of various glycosides.
Traditional use of Chamomile
Traditionally, chamomile benefits has been used for centuries as an anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, mild astringent and healing medicine. As a traditional medicine, it is used to treat:
- Skin irritations,
- Bruises, Burns,
- Canker sores,
- Neuralgia, Sciatica,
- Rheumatic pain,
- Mastitis and other ailments.
Externally, chamomile has been used to treat diaper rash, cracked nipples, chicken pox, ear and eye infections, disorders of the eyes including blocked tear ducts, conjunctivitis, nasal inflammation and poison ivy.
Also, the chamomile benefits are widely used to treat respiratory tract conditions, inflammations of the skin and mucous membranes, and for various bacterial infections in the skin, oral cavity and gums.
In the form of an aqueous extract, chamomile has been frequently used as a mild sedative to calm nerves and reduce anxiety, to treat hysteria, nightmares, insomnia and other sleep problems.
Chamomile benefits has been valued as a digestive relaxant and has been used to treat various gastrointestinal disturbances including flatulence, indigestion, diarrhea, anorexia, motion sickness, nausea, and vomiting.
It has also been used to treat colic, croup, and fevers in children. Besides, it has been served as an emmenagogue and uterine tonic in women. In addition, chamomile has shown to be helpful and effective in arthritis, back pain, bedsores and stomach cramps.
Healthcare preparations of Chamomile
Chamomile is known to be used in several forms of its preparations to obtain its properties and benefits. These are:
Dry powder of chamomile flower is recommended and used by many people for traditionally established health problems.
Medicinal ingredients are normally extracted from the dry flowers of chamomile by using water, ethanol or methanol as solvents and corresponding extracts are known as aqueous, ethanolic (alcoholic) and/or methanolic extracts. Optimum chamomile extracts contain about 50 percent alcohol.
Normally standardized extracts contain 1.2% of apigenin which is one of the most effective bioactive agents.
Tea and Infusion
Aqueous extracts, such as in the form of tea, contain quite low concentrations of free apigenin but include high levels of apigenin-7-O-glucoside. Oral infusion of chamomile is recommended by the German Commission E.
The tea of chamomile is one of the world’s most popular herbal teas and about a million cups are consumed every day. Tea bags of chamomile are also available in the market, containing chamomile flower powder, either pure or blended with other popular medicinal herbs.
In addition, tea infusion is used as a wash or gargle for inflammation of the mucous membranes of the mouth and throat.
Preparation of Tea
Chamomile tea, as described by the German Commission E monograph, is prepared by pouring 150 mL of boiling water to one heaped teaspoon (3 g) of chamomile flowers. It is kept covered for 5–10 minutes and passed through a strainer.
It has been found that the tea contains the spasm-reducing (spasmolytic) compounds (the flavonoids).
The tea, however, cannot reduce internal inflammation because it has extremely low amounts of the anti-inflammatory compounds, which are mainly found in the essential oil. The tea contains only 1%–3% of the essential oil. However, if the tea is externally applied, it reduces inflammation.
Chamomile tincture may also be prepared as one part chamomile flower in four parts of water having 12% grain alcohol, which is used to correct summer diarrhea in children and also used with purgatives to prevent cramping.
Preparation of Tincture and Extract
To prepare tincture or extract, the dried chamomile flowers are homogenized at room temperature in ethanol–water and the liquid is evaporated.
For tinctures, the ratio of ethanol to water is kept at 1:5. The tincture can be taken in place of tea and is more effective. About 10–15 drops of tincture can be added to a glass of tepid water and used for gargle.
For extracts, the ratio of ethanol to water is kept at 1:1. The extracts are further dried and concentrated into viscous extracts and added to gels, ointments, and creams. Dry extracts are used to prepare tablets, capsules, and coated pills.
Chamomile flowers are extensively used alone, or combined with crushed poppy-heads, as a poultice or hot foment for inflammatory pain or congestive neuralgia, and in cases of external swelling, such as facial swelling associated with underlying infection or abscess.
The whole plant of chamomile is used for making herb beers, and also for lotions to be applied externally in toothache, earache, neuralgia and in cases of external swelling. It is also known to be used as bath additive, recommended for soothing ano-genital inflammation.
Essential Oil The essential oil of chamomile is present in the whole plant. However, the essential oil content is higher in the flowers than in other parts of the plant, and also has higher levels of useful compounds. Therefore, the essential oil of the flowers is mostly used for medicinal and aromatic purposes.
The essential oil of chamomile is obtained by the process of steam distillation or hydrodistillation, in which the flowers are subjected to high pressure, temperature, and steam to separate out the essential oil from them.
The oil is deep blue or ink blue in color and has a characteristic sweet, grassy smell. It may turn green and then dark brown on oxidation and lose its therapeutic value.
At the time of distillation, it is extremely concentrated. The quality of the essential oil may differ from one variety of chamomile plant to another, but the various pharmacopoeias clearly mention that to be used for medicinal purpose, the oil content should be 0.4% in the flowers.
The oil is prone to vaporization and decomposition, and so it has to be stored carefully in dark bottles under the prescribed temperature.
Essential oils are absorbed into the body on inhalation and through the skin. The compounds penetrate the skin and enter the bloodstream and act as medicines. The essential oil of chamomile is extensively used in aromatherapy, massage, and baths.
Inhalation of the vaporized chamomile essential oil is recommended to relieve anxiety and general depression.
Chamomile Benefits for Health
Anti-inflammatory and Antiphlogistic Properties
The flowers of chamomile contain 1–2% volatile oils including alpha-bisabolol, alpha- bisabolol oxides A & B, and matricin (usually converted to chamazulene and other flavonoids which possess anti-inflammatory and antiphlogistic properties.
A study in human volunteers demonstrated that chamomile flavonoids and chamomile essential oils penetrate below the skin surface into the deeper skin layers. This is important for their use as topical antiphlogistic (anti-inflammatory) agents.
One of the anti- inflammatory activities of chamomile involve the inhibition of LPS-induced prostaglandin E(2), release and attenuation of cyclooxygenase (COX-2) enzyme activity without affecting the constitutive form, COX-1.
In simple words, this is the same mechanism of action generated by a class of anti-inflammatory, antipyretic and analgesic drugs called NSAIDs, which are widely used drugs such as ibuprofen and paracetamol, but without side effects.
Some of the functions that prostaglandin regulates are:
- Bronchial constriction
- Contraction of the smooth muscle of the digestive tract
- Relaxation of the smooth muscle of the digestive tract
- Decreases the secretion of gastric acid
- Increases the secretion of gastric mucus
- Contraction of the uterus (during pregnancy)
- Contraction of the smooth muscle of the digestive tract
- Inhibition of lipolysis
- Increase in autonomous neurotransmitters
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Most evaluations of tumor growth inhibition by chamomile involve studies with apigenin which is one of the bioactive constituents of chamomile.
Studies on preclinical models of skin, prostate, breast and ovarian cancer have shown promising growth inhibitory effects. In a recently conducted study, chamomile extracts were shown to cause minimal growth inhibitory effects on normal cells, but showed significant reductions in cell viability in various human cancer cell lines.
Chamomile exposure induced apoptosis in cancer cells but not in normal cells at similar doses. The efficacy of the novel agent TBS-101, a mixture of seven standardized botanical extracts including chamomile has been recently tested.
The results confirm it to have a good safety profile with significant anticancer activities against androgen-refractory human prostrate cancer PC-3 cells, both in vitro and in vivo situation.
Common cold (acute viral nasopharyngitis) is the most common human disease. It is a mild viral infectious disease of the upper respiratory system.
Typically common cold is not life-threatening, although its complications (such as pneumonia) can lead to death, if not properly treated.
Studies indicate that inhaling steam with chamomile extract has been helpful in common cold symptoms; however, further research is needed to confirm these findings.
It has been suggested that regular use of flavonoids consumed in food may reduce the risk of death from coronary heart disease in elderly men.
A study assessed the flavonoid intake of 805 men aged between 65 and 84 years old, who were followed up for 5 years.
Flavonoid intake (analyzed in tertiles) was significantly inversely associated with mortality from coronary heart disease and showed an inverse relation with incidence of myocardial infarction.
In another study, on twelve patients with cardiac disease who underwent cardiac catheterization, hemodynamic measurements obtained prior to and 30 minutes after the oral ingestion of chamomile tea exhibited a small but significant increase in the mean brachial artery pressure. No other significant hemodynamic changes were observed after chamomile consumption.
Ten of the twelve patients fell into a deep sleep shortly after drinking the beverage. A large, well-designed randomized controlled trial is needed to assess the potential value of chamomile in improving cardiac health.
Colic and Diarrhea
An apple pectin-chamomile extract may help shorten the course of diarrhea in children as well as relieve symptoms associated with the condition.
Two clinical trials have evaluated the efficacy of chamomile for the treatment of colic in children. Chamomile tea was combined with other herbs (German chamomile, vervain, licorice, fennel, balm mint) for administration.
In a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 68 healthy term infants who had colic (2 to 8 weeks old) received either herbal tea or placebo (glucose, flavoring). Each infant was offered treatment with every bout of colic, up to 150 mL/dose, no more than three times a day.
After 7 days of treatment, parents reported that the tea eliminated the colic in 57% of the infants, whereas placebo was helpful in only 26% (P<0.01).
No adverse effects with regard to the number of nighttime awakenings were noted in either group.
Another study examined the effects of a chamomile extract and apple pectin preparation in 79 children (age 0.5–5.5 years old) with acute, non-complicated diarrhea who received either the chamomile/pectin preparation (n = 39) or a placebo (n = 40) for 3 days. Diarrhea ended sooner in children treated with chamomile and pectin (85%), than in the placebo group (58%).
These results provide evidence that chamomile can be used safely to treat infant colic disorders.
Another chamomile benefit is that when using topically have been shown to be moderately effective in the treatment of atopic eczema. It was found to be about 60% as effective as 0.25% hydrocortisone cream.
Roman chamomile of the Manzana type (Kamillosan (R)) may ease discomfort associated with eczema when applied as a cream containing chamomile extract.
The Manzana type of chamomile is rich in active ingredients and does not exhibit chamomile-related allergenic potential.
In a partially double-blind, randomized study carried out as a half-side comparison, Kamillosan(R) cream was compared with 0.5% hydrocortisone cream and a placebo consisting only of vehicle cream in patients suffering from medium-degree atopic eczema.
After 2 weeks of treatment, Kamillosan(R) cream showed a slight superiority over 0.5% hydrocortisone and a marginal difference as compared to placebo.
Further research is needed to evaluate the usefulness of topical chamomile in managing eczema.
Chamomile is used traditionally for numerous gastrointestinal conditions, including digestive disorders, “spasm” or colic, upset stomach, flatulence (gas), ulcers, and gastrointestinal irritation.
It is especially helpful in dispelling gas, soothing the stomach, and relaxing the muscles that move food through the intestines.
The protective effect of a commercial preparation (STW5, Iberogast), containing the extracts of bitter candy tuft, lemon balm leaf, chamomile flower, caraway fruit, peppermint leaf, liquorice root, angelica root, milk thistle fruit and greater celandine herb, against the development of gastric ulcers has been previously reported.
STW5 extracts produced a dose dependent anti-ulcerogenic effect associated with a reduced acid output, an increased mucin secretion, an increase in prostaglandin E (2) release and a decrease in leukotrienes. The results obtained demonstrated that STW5 not only lowered gastric acidity as effectively as a commercial antacid, but was more effective in inhibiting secondary hyperacidity.
Studies suggest that chamomile ointment may improve hemorrhoids. Tinctures of chamomile can also be used in a sitz bath format.
Tincture of Roman chamomile may reduce inflammation associated with hemorrhoids.
Strengthens the Immune System
It has been claimed that consumption of chamomile tea boosts the immune system and helps fight infections associated with colds.
The health promoting benefits of chamomile was assessed in a study which involved fourteen volunteers who each drank five cups of the herbal tea daily for two consecutive weeks.
Daily urine samples were taken and tested throughout the study, both before and after drinking chamomile tea.
Drinking chamomile was associated with a significant increase in urinary levels of hippurate and glycine, which have been associated with increased antibacterial activity.
In another study, chamomile relieved hypertensive symptoms and decreased the systolic blood pressure significantly, increasing urinary output.
Additional studies are needed before a more definitive link between chamomile and its alleged health benefits can be established.
Inflammation is associated with many gastrointestinal disorders complaints, such as esophageal reflux, diverticular disease, and inflammatory disease.
Studies in preclinical models suggest that chamomile inhibits Helicobacter pylori, the bacteria that can contribute to stomach ulcers.
Chamomile benefits are believed to be helpful in reducing smooth muscle spasms associated with various gastrointestinal inflammatory disorders.
On the other hand, chamomile is often used to treat mild skin irritations, including sunburn, rashes, sores and even eye inflammations. However, its value in treating these conditions has not been shown with evidence-based research.
Mouth ulcers are a common condition with a variety of etiologies. Stomatitis is a major dose-limiting toxicity from bolus 5-fluorouracil-based (5-FU) chemotherapy regimens.
A double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial including 164 patients was conducted. Patients were entered into the study at the time of their first cycle of 5-FU-based chemotherapy and were randomized to receive a chamomile or placebo mouthwash thrice daily for 14 days.
There was no suggestion of any stomatitis difference between patients randomized to either protocol arm. There was also no suggestion of toxicity.
Similar results were obtained with another prospective trial on chamomile in this situation. Data obtained from these clinical trials did not support the pre study hypothesis that chamomile could decrease 5-FU-induced stomatitis. The results remain unclear if chamomile is helpful in this situation.
Osteoporosis is a metabolic bone disease resulting from low bone mass (osteopenia) due to excessive bone resorption.
Sufferers are prone to bone fractures from relatively minor trauma. Agents which include selective estrogen receptor modulators or SERMs, biphosphonates, calcitonin are frequently used to prevent bone loss.
To prevent bone loss that occurs with increasing age, chamomile extract was evaluated for its ability to stimulate the differentiation and mineralization of osteoblastic cells.
Chamomile extract was shown to stimulate osteoblastic cell differentiation and to exhibit an anti-estrogenic effect, suggesting an estrogen receptor-related mechanism. However, further studies are needed before it can be considered for clinical use.
Sleep aid and sedation
Traditionally, chamomile preparations such as tea and essential oil aromatherapy have been used to treat insomnia and to induce sedation (calming effects).
Chamomile is widely regarded as a mild tranquillizer and sleep-inducer. Sedative effects may be due to the flavonoid, apigenin that binds to benzodiazepine receptors in the brain.
Studies in preclinical models have shown anticonvulsant and CNS depressant effects respectively.
Clinical trials are notable for their absence, although ten cardiac patients are reported to have immediately fallen into a deep sleep lasting for 90 minutes after drinking chamomile tea. Besides, chamomile extracts exhibit benzodiazepine-like hypnotic activity.
In another study, inhalation of the vapor of chamomile oil reduced a stress-induced increase in plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) levels. Diazepam, co-administered with the chamomile oil vapor, further reduced ACTH levels, while flumazenile, a BDZ antagonist blocked the effect of chamomile oil vapor on ACTH.
According to Paladini et al., the separation index (ratio between the maximal anxiolytic dose and the minimal sedative dose) for diazepam is 3 while for apigenin it is 10.
Compounds, other than apigenin, present in extracts of chamomile can also bind BDZ and GABA receptors in the brain and might be responsible for some sedative effect; however, many of these compounds are as yet unidentified.
Anxiety and seizure
Chamomile benefits has been reported in the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). But the reports appear contradictory as an earlier report suggests that German chamomile showed significant inhibition of GAD activity.
The recent results from the controlled clinical trial on chamomile extract for GAD suggests that it may have modest anxiolytic activity in patients with mild to moderate GAD.
Extracts of chamomile (M. recutita) possess suitable effects on seizure induced by picrotoxin. Furthermore, apigenin has been shown to reduce the latency in the onset of picrotoxin-induced convulsions and reduction in locomotor activity, but did not demonstrate any anxiolytic, myorelaxant, or anticonvulsant activities.
Studies suggest that chamomile ameliorates hyperglycemia and diabetic complications by suppressing blood sugar levels, increasing liver glycogen storage and inhibition of sorbitol in the human erythrocytes.
The pharmacological activity of chamomile extract has shown to be independent of insulin secretion, and studies further reveal its protective effect on pancreatic beta cells in diminishing hyperglycemia-related oxidative stress.
Additional studies are required to evaluate the usefulness of chamomile in managing diabetes.
Vaginal inflammation is common in women of all ages. Vaginitis is associated with itching, vaginal discharge, or pain with urination.
Atrophic vaginitis most commonly occurs in menopausal and postmenopausal women, and its occurrence is often associated with reduced levels of estrogen. Chamomile douche may improve symptoms of vaginitis with few side effects.
However, there is insufficient research data to allow conclusions concerning possible potential chamomile benefits for this condition.
The efficacy of topical use of chamomile to enhance wound healing was evaluated in a double-blind trial on 14 patients who underwent dermabrasion of tattoos.
The effects on drying and epithelialization were observed, and chamomile was judged to be statistically efficacious in producing wound drying and in speeding epithelialization.
Antimicrobial activity of the extract against various microorganisms was also assessed. The test group, on day 15, exhibited a greater reduction in the wound area when compared with the controls (61 % versus 48%), faster epithelialization and a significantly higher wound-breaking strength.
In addition, wet and dry granulation tissue weight and hydroxyproline content were significantly higher.
The increased rate of wound contraction, together with the increased wound-breaking strength, hydroxyproline content and histological observations, support the use of M. recutita in wound management.
Recent studies suggest that chamomile caused complete wound healing faster than corticosteroids. However, further studies are needed before it can be considered for clinical use.
Quality of Life in Cancer Patients
Essential oils obtained from Roman chamomile are the basic ingredients of aromatherapy. Clinical trials of aromatherapy in cancer patients have shown no statistically significant differences between treated and untreated patients.
Another pilot study investigated the effects of aromatherapy massage on the anxiety and self-esteem experience in Korean elderly women.
A quasi-experimental, control group, pretest-posttest design used 36 elderly females: 16 in the experimental group and 20 in the control group.
Each massage session lasted 20 min, and was performed 3 times per week for two 3-week periods with an intervening 1-week break.
The intervention produced significant differences in the anxiety and self-esteem. These results suggest that aromatherapy massage exerts positive effects on anxiety and self-esteem. However, more objective, clinical measures should be applied in a future study with a randomized placebo-controlled design.
Safety and Contraindications when using Chamomile
A relatively low percentage of people are sensitive to chamomile and develop allergic reactions. People sensitive to ragweed and chrysanthemums or other members of the Compositae family are more prone to develop contact allergies to chamomile, especially if they take other drugs that help to trigger the sensitization.
A large-scale clinical trial was conducted in Hamburg, Germany, between 1985 and 1991 to study the development of contact dermatitis secondary to exposure to a mixture of components derived from the Compositae family.
Twelve species of the Compositae family, including German chamomile, were selected and tested individually when the mixture induced allergic reactions.
During the study, 3,851 individuals were tested using a patch with the plant extract. Of these patients, 118 (3.1%) experienced an allergic reaction. Further tests revealed that feverfew elicited the most allergic reactions (70.1% of patients), followed by chrysanthemums (63.6%) and tansy (60.8%). Chamomile fell in the middle range (56.5%).
A study involving 686 subjects exposed either to a sesquiterpene lactone mixture or a mixture of Compositae extracts, led to allergic reactions in 4.5% of subjects.
In another study, it was shown that eye washing with chamomile tea in hay fever patients who have conjunctivitis, exacerbates the eye inflammation. Whereas, no worsening of eye inflammation was noted when chamomile tea was ingested orally.
Chamomile is listed on the FDA’s GRAS (generally recognized as safe) list.
It is possible that some reports of allergic reactions to chamomile may be due to contamination of chamomile by “dog chamomile”, a highly allergenic and bad-tasting plant of similar appearance.
Evidence of cross-reactivity of chamomile with other drugs is not well documented, and further study of this issue is needed prior to reaching conclusions.
Safety in young children, pregnant or nursing women, or those with liver or kidney disease has not been established, although there have not been any credible reports of toxicity caused by this common beverage tea.
Common Uses of the Chamomile
Below you will find a table with some health conditions that can be treated with the use of chamomile:
|Disease or Ailment
|Effect of Chamomile
|Calming and restorative, nerve tonifying
|Reduces anxiety and depression by stimulating appetite, relax the body. The essential oil is used, which is inhaled, massaged, or put in bath water
|Reduces phobias and panic disorder by promoting general relaxation of the nervous system. Chamomile acts as an adaptogen by promoting adaptability to stress
|Promotes free breathing. Essential oil is inhaled to reduce obstruction in the airways
|Reduces symptoms. Essential oil is applied directly to the
toes. The oil can be added to bath water as well
|Calms the person. Chamomile extract is used for the treatment
|Binge eating disorder
|Reduces stress, thereby reducing the disorder
|Fights infection. Chamomile is to be applied topically
|Prevents grinding of teeth. Chamomile acts as an antispasmodic and central nervous system relaxant. Chamomile is prescribed before going to bed
|Relieves pain. Promotes wound healing. Used chamomile tea bag is applied to the bunion, which may prove helpful. Massaging with essential oil of chamomile or a cream containing chamomile may provide relief
|Reduces anxiety. Chamomile tea is recommended
|Existing sores are treated with tea. Compresses soaked in the tea are recommended to be applied directly to the mouth. The tea can also be swished around in the mouth for several minutes
|Aids in sleep or promotes sleep
|Prevents chills and cold intolerance. Chamomile tea is recommended
|Reduces bowel inflammation and gas. Chamomile tea is recommended
|Prevents discomfort of the eye. An eyewash is made of two to three teaspoons of chamomile flowers added to boiling water to make tea. The tea is cooled. A cool compress is made and put over the eye. Damp tea bags of chamomile may also be used
|Stimulates movement of digestive and excretory systems
|Thickened skin is dissolved, providing relief. One teaspoon of lemon juice, one teaspoon of dried chamomile flowers, and one crushed garlic clove can be directly applied to dissolve thickened skin
|Oil production of the skin is slowed down. Tannins in the chamomile tea can slow down this process. Chamomile tea can be rubbed onto the skin with a cloth several times per day
|Cuts and scratches
|Repairs skin damage and encourages new cell growth. Chamomile oil can be sprayed onto the affected area
|Provides relief. Chamomile ointment may be applied to the affected area
|Provides relief. Chamomile infusion to be provided throughout the day
|Reduces inflammation in cases of uncomplicated diverticulitis
|Stimulates salivary flow. Chamomile tea is recommended
|Reduces inflammation. Chamomile ointment is used
|Chamomile creates soothing mood. Essential oil is inhaled
|Soothes muscle and joint pain. Chamomile tub soak (bath) or compress is recommended
|Calming effect. Chamomile tea is recommended
|Antifungal. Chamomile tea is used. The used tea bag can be put on the area of infection
|Relieves gas. Chamomile tea is recommended
|Counteracts free radicals and inhibits Helicobacter pylori. Chamomile tea is used
|Provides relief. Chamomile tea is used
|Sedative effect and promotes relaxation. Tea or infusion is used
|Relieves stress. Essential oil is used
|Provides relief. Chamomile tea is used
|Inflammatory bowel disease
|Reduces inflammation, reduces spasms, antibacterial action. Flowers of chamomile are soaked in water for 10–14 minutes and the tea is taken 3–4 times daily
|Promotes sleep. Chamomile tea is used. Putting chamomile flowers inside the pillow is also recommended
|Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis
|Detoxification of body to reduce symptoms. Chamomile oil massage is recommended
|Reduces spasms and swellings. Chamomile tea and oil massage is recommended
|Low back pain
|Reduces spasms. Chamomile tea and oil massage is recommended
|Reduces restlessness. Chamomile tea is used
|Promotes relaxation. Chamomile tea and chamomile oil massage is recommended
|Relieves mood swings, tension, and cramps. Chamomile tea is recommended. Essential oil massage is also recommended
|Relieves symptoms of nausea and vomiting. Chamomile tea is used
|Relieves symptoms. Massage with chamomile oil is recommended
|Ear (otitis media)
|Reduces the congestion of upper respiratory tract infections
|Stimulates blood circulation and healing in ovaries. Compress, made of towels soaked in chamomile oil, wrapped around a hot water bottle is applied to the lower abdomen
|Relief of symptoms. Warm water bath with chamomile flowers is recommended
|Reduces skin inflammation following radiation therapy. Chamomile cream is used
|Relieves symptoms. Chamomile tea is recommended
|Relieves pain. Massage with chamomile oil is recommended
|Soothes irritated skin. Cold compress of chamomile tea is recommended
|Promotes relaxation. Bath with tepid infusion of chamomile is recommended
|Relieves upset stomach, gas, and stomach spasms. Chamomile tea is recommended
|Relieves pain. Cloth dampened with chamomile tea is placed in the freezer and used in place of a freezable toy